What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a common disease, but not all individuals truly know the features and characteristics of the condition. Knowing the triggers and potential risks can help you get rid of the problem, as well as find the right measures that will hopefully minimize the chances. You will also learn more about treatment and medications, provided you already know the type that you have. Here is some more information on the nature and things to expect.

1. Overview of the Condition

Diabetes mellitus or just diabetes, is a condition wherein a person develops high blood sugar or glucose level because the body is not producing right amounts of insulin, or due to body cells not correctly responding to insulin being produced. Insulin is a kind of hormone created in the pancreas that allows cells in the body to absorb glucose and convert it into energy. If the cells of the body do not readily absorb glucose, it accumulates in the blood, thereby triggering hyperglycemia. Other complications can also follow.

2. Types of Diabetes

There are several kinds of diabetes, but the most commonly known are Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is triggered by the body’s failure to create insulin naturally. The person will need to inject insulin. Type 2 diabetes comes from insulin resistance, described as a condition wherein the cells fail to use insulin correctly, at times mixed with total deficiency in insulin. Gestational diabetes occurs among pregnant women, who did not have the problem before. These women also have high blood glucose level at the time of pregnancy. The condition may occur before Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs.

3. Other Forms

Other types of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which occurs because of the genetic problems of insulin secretion, steroid diabetes triggered by high doses of glucocorticoids, cystic fibrosis-linked diabetes and several monogenic diabetes forms. All types of diabetes can be treated effectively since the time insulin was made medically available in 1921. The specific cure, however, is not yet present. There is little success in Type 1 DM when it comes to pancreas transplants. With Type 2 DM, gastric bypass surgery can be successful. The gestational type usually occurs right after pregnancy.

4. On Complications

Complications can happen with each type of diabetes. Acute complications can vary, such as hyperosmolar coma, non-ketonic hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis. More serious long term complications include chronic renal failure, cardiovascular disease and retinal damage. The right treatment of diabetes is very important, including lifestyle changes and blood pressure control. The person may need to maintain healthy body weight, stop smoking and drinking and do regular physical activity.

5. The Morbidity

About 171 million individuals all over the globe have diabetes. That equates to around 2.8% of the total world population. Type 2 diabetes is the most common, which affects 90% to 95% of the United States diabetes population. People develop the problem during different times of their lives. Some can get the problem during childhood, also referred to as juvenile diabetes mellitus. Others may only get the problem late in their 60s or 70s.

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